The electroretinogram (ERG) is a diagnostic test that measures the . The multifocal ERG (mfERG) simultaneously measures local retinal. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) is an objective, noninvasive examination for the assessment of visual function. It enables the stimulation. Abstract. AIMS To describe the topography of multifocal electroretinograms ( ERGs) and to explore its diagnostic value in patients with Stargardt’s macular.

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A healthy year-old male presented with a loss of vision which he described as “pizza pie” in appearance. Not to be confused with other types of electrography. In summary, mfERG is a unique objective method of determining outer retinal function and provides a basis for following patients with outer retinal diseases.

A sink is convenient to wash your hands and to clean electrodes. We find it most useful in assessing patients with visual acuity loss and a dearth of clinical findings. Multifocal ERGs superimposed on Humphrey visual field showing agreement with field loss.

Dark adapted Oscillatory potentials: Residents and Fellows contest rules International Ophthalmologists contest rules.

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In our lab, we record the ERG with an electrode embedded within a contact lens. Clinically used mainly by ophthalmologists mltifocal optometriststhe electroretinogram ERG is used for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases.

Normal ERG responses unless presence of advanced retinopathy; cone function initially more affected than rod function. You must be signed in to post a comment.

Most cases can be distinguished on the basis of a clinical exam with a normal appearing fovea, flecks in the mid-periphery, and poor central vision. Selective reduction in b-wave amplitude more prominent in electrorretinogeama than photopic responses; delayed photopic and scotopic b-wave implicit times. The responses can be demonstrated by the multifocal ERG traces or in a 3-dimentional plot, reflecting the response density distribution across the stimulated area.

Optic nerve pallor, mild foveal granularity, as well as mid-peripheral pigment changes are noted. The b-wave amplitude is generally measured from the trough of the a-wave to the peak of the b-wave. In the protocol below, we describe the recording of mfERGs using a bipolar speculum contact lens.

The central hexagons are smaller than electrorretinorgama in the periphery. While the subject views the display, a single continuous electroretinogram recording is obtained. Most manufacturers provide specialty protocols or a number of analysis and recording approaches and there are many potential benefits to taking a flexible approach to protocol selection.


The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions flash or pattern stimulus, whether a background light is present, and the colors of the stimulus and background can elicit stronger response from certain components.

On the other hand, most OMD patients had slight but significant prolonged latencies across the whole tested field. Representative Results An example of an mfERG measurement taken from a patient with significant upper left visual field loss is shown in figure 1 superimposed onto the Humphrey visual field. We find that the pericentral loss pattern See Figure 2 is most specific to hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

Scotopic rod responses are isolated by dark-adaptation for a minimum of 20 minutes per ISCEV standards followed by a short wavelength stimulus as a single flash or 10 Hz flicker.

For example, some retinal diseases affect the implicit response times of the photoreceptors at varying stages of progression, depending on the type of disease. If the problem continues, please let us know and we’ll try to help.

Color scale transformation mfERGs “amplitudes” in patient showing early pockets of retinal toxicity degrees from fovea. This difference in latency between the OMD subjects and the normal subjects did not change with eccentricity, implying that the retinal dysfunction has a broader boundary than expected by multifocal ERG response densities and perimetric results.

A year-old asymptomatic female with an eight-year history of hydroxychloroquine use at 7. Because the procedure requires patient cooperation, it is difficult to perform in uncooperative children or those with tremors e.

The electrical response is a result of a retinal potential generated by light-induced changes in the flux of transretinal ions, primarily sodium and potassium. This leads to closure of the sodium ion channels resulting in a decrease of inwardly directed sodium ions, or a hyperpolarization of the cell.

Electroretinography – Wikipedia

A limitation of traditional full-field electroretinograms ERG for the diagnosis of retinopathy is lack of sensitivity. Figure 5 Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion. The visual stimuli depicted here, were produced by a LCD microdisplay subtending 35 – 40 degrees horizontally and 30 – 35 degrees vertically of visual field, and calibrated to produce multifocal flash intensities of 2. The PERG is used to detect subtle optic neuropathies.

Initially decreased oscillatory potentials, electrorretinogrsma stages involve reduced a- and b-wave amplitudes. Multifocal electroretinography mfERG is most useful in solving the common puzzle of a patient with poor vision who has a normal appearing retina.

The typical mfERG setup includes a contact lens electrode on the cornea connected to an electrically isolated amplifier. The progression of this slowing can be followed using mfERG, as the effect progresses from a small area in the nasal retina region to the complete coverage of the retina Figure 4. The hexagonal elements in the array are distributed so that the focal retinal responses have an approximately equal signal-to-noise ratio.